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Penguins, The Flightless Biped

Penguin

Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic flightless birds. They live almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere, with only one species, the Galapagos penguin, found north of the equator. Highly adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, and their wings have evolved into flippers. Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid and other forms of sea life which they catch while swimming underwater. They spend roughly half of their lives on land and the other half in the sea.

Etymology

The word penguin first appears in the 16th century as a synonym for great auk.[2] When European explorers discovered what are today known as penguins in the Southern Hemisphere, they noticed their similar appearance to the great auk of the Northern Hemisphere, and named them after this bird, although they are not closely related.[3]

  • Basal and unresolved taxa (all fossil)
  • Spheniscidae
    A reconstruction of the ancient penguin Icadyptes
    • Waimanu Jones, Ando & Fordyce 2006 (Middle-Late Paleocene)
    • Kumimanu Mayr, 2017
    • Delphinornis Wiman 1905 (Middle/Late Eocene? – Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
    • Marambiornis Myrcha et al. 2002 (Late Eocene –? Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
    • Mesetaornis Myrcha et al. 2002 (Late Eocene –? Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
    • Perudyptes Clarke et al. 2007 (Middle Eocene of Atacama Desert, Peru)
    • Anthropornis Wiman 1905 (Middle Eocene? – Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
    • Palaeeudyptes Huxley 1859 (Middle/Late Eocene – Late Oligocene)
    • Icadyptes Clarke et al. 2007 (Late Eocene of Atacama Desert, Peru)
    • Pachydyptes Oliver 1930 (Late Eocene)
    • Inkayacu Clarke et al. 2010 (Late Eocene of South America)
    • Kairuku Ksepka et al. 2012 (Late Oligocene of E South Island, New Zealand)
    • Paraptenodytes Ameghino 1891 (Early – Late Miocene/Early Pliocene)
    • Archaeospheniscus Marples 1952 (Middle/Late Eocene – Late Oligocene)
    • Duntroonornis Marples 1953 (Late Oligocene of Otago, New Zealand)
    • Platydyptes Marples 1952 (Late Oligocene of New Zealand)[18]
    • Dege Simpson 1979 (Early Pliocene of South Africa) – possibly Spheniscinae
    • Marplesornis Simpson 1972 (Early Pliocene)
    • Subfamily Palaeospheniscinae (slender-footed penguins) (fossil)
      • Eretiscus Olson 1986 (Patagonia Early Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina)
      • Palaeospheniscus Moreno & Mercerat 1891 (Early? – Late Miocene/Early Pliocene) – includes Chubutodyptes
    • Subfamily Spheniscinae
      • Spheniscidae gen. et sp. indet. CADIC P 21 (Leticia Middle Eocene of Punta Torcida, Argentina)[19]
      • Spheniscidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of Hakataramea, New Zealand)[20]
      • Madrynornis (Puerto Madryn Late Miocene of Argentina)
Standard Aspect ratio Width (px) Height (px) Steam[11] (%) StatCounter[12] (%)
HD ~16:9 1366 768 12.48 24.55
FHD 16:9 1920 1080 62.46 19.70
WXGA+ 16:10 1440 900 3.44 7.15
other 16:9 1536 864 0.21 6.08
HD+ 16:9 1600 900 3.31 5.03
XGA 4:3 1024 768 0.56 3.76
WXGA 16:9 1280 720 0.40 3.71
WXGA 16:10 1280 800 0.76 3.69
SXGA 5:4 1280 1024 1.85 3.52
WSXGA+ 16:10 1680 1050 2.40 2.56
QHD 16:9 2560 1440 4.68 1.82
HD ~16:9 1360 768 1.79 1.69
nHD 16:9 640 360 n/a 1.23
WUXGA 16:10 1920 1200 0.87 1.16
SVGA 4:3 800 600 n/a 0.64
QWXGA 16:9 2048 1152 n/a 0.42
other ~21:9 2560 1080 1.02 n/a
other ~21:9 3440 1440 0.55 n/a
4K UHD 16:9 3840 2160 1.60 n/a
Other 1.62 13.31

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